Working Paper Series
IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy
Gabriele Doblhammer, Gerard J. van den Berg
Economic conditions at the time of birth and cognitive abilities late in life: evidence from eleven European countries
() and Thomas Fritze
Abstract: With ageing populations and a stronger reliance on
individual financial decision-making concerning asset portfolios,
retirement schemes, pensions and insurances, it becomes increasingly
important to understand the determinants of cognitive ability among the
elderly. To study effects of the early-life economic environment,
macro-economic fluctuations may be used. In European countries, about three
to four economic recession and boom periods occurred between 1900 and 1945.
The timing of these periods differs across countries.
We apply data
from the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) among
elderly individuals. This survey is homogeneous across countries. We use
almost 20,000 respondents from 11 countries. We examine several domains of
cognitive functioning at ages 60+ and link them to the macro-economic
deviations in the year of birth, controlling for demographic, socioeconomic
and health status. We find that economic conditions at birth significantly
influence cognitive functioning late in life in various domains. The
effects are particularly pronounced among the less educated. Recessions
negatively influence numeracy and verbal fluency as well as the score on
the omnibus cognitive indicator. The results are robust; controlling for
current characteristics does not change effect sizes and significance. We
discuss possible causal pathways.
Keywords: Cognition; economic business cycle; developmental origins; health; long-run effects; dementia; numeracy; memory; decision-making; (follow links to similar papers)
JEL-Codes: I12; I18; J14; J26; N14; N34; (follow links to similar papers)
47 pages, September 30, 2011
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- This paper is published as:
Doblhammer, Gabriele, Gerard J. van den Berg and Thomas Fritze, (2014), 'Can individual conditions during childhood mediate or moderate the long-term cognitive effects of poor economic environments at birth?', Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 119, October, pages 240-248
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