Working Paper Series
Graded Children – Evidence of Longrun Consequences of School Grades from a Nationwide Reform
Abstract: Swedish elementary school children stopped receiving
written end of year report cards following a grading reform in 1982.
Gradual implementation of the reform creates an opportunity to investigate
the effects of being graded on adult educational attainments and earnings
for children in the cohorts born 1954–1974, using a
difference-in-differences strategy. Accounting for municipal time trends
and tracing out reform dynamics, there is some evidence that being graded
increases girls’ years of schooling, but has no significant average effect
on boys. Analysis of effects by family background suggests that receiving
grades increases the probability of high school graduation for boys and
girls with compulsory school educated parents. Sons of university
graduates, however, earn less and are less likely to get a university
degree if they were graded in elementary school.
Keywords: School policy; Grades; Educational attainment; Adult earnings; Family background; Difference-in-differences; (follow links to similar papers)
JEL-Codes: I21; I28; J13; J24; (follow links to similar papers)
52 pages, June 8, 2010
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