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CIRCLE, Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy, Lund University Papers in Innovation Studies, CIRCLE, Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy, Lund University

No 2008/7:
The Swedish Paradox arises in Fast-Growing Sectors

Olof Ejermo () and Astrid Kander ()

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine whether the previously observed gap between growth of R&D and economic performance, known as the ‘Swedish paradox’, is a general phenomenon across all sectors of the economy, or only occurs in specific industry segments. The dataset used for the analysis covers nearly the entire Swedish economy 1985-1998, divided into five broad sectors: Fast-growing industries, Slow-growing industries, Industrial outphasers, Fast- growing producer services and Other services. The growth of R&D, value added and research productivity is compared for these sectors and the largest gap between R&D and value added is located to the fast growing sectors of the economy. The Swedish paradox is therefore not necessarily a sign of weakness or deficiency of the innovation system, but rather indicates that long-term growth requires large investments in knowledge-building resources.

Keywords: Swedish paradox; sectors; R&D; research productivity; economic growth.; (follow links to similar papers)

JEL-Codes: O30; (follow links to similar papers)

34 pages, June 1, 2008

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