Discussion Paper Series in Economics, Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics (NHH)
The family gap in career progression.
Abstract: This study investigates whether and when during the life
cycle women fall behind in terms of career progression because of children.
We use 1987-1997 Norwegian panel data that contain information on
individuals’ position in their career hierarchy as well as a direct measure
of their promotions. We measure overall promotions as increases in rank
within the same establishment as well as in combination with an
establishment change. Women with children are 1.6 percentage points less
likely promoted than women without children; this is what we refer to as
the family gap in climbing the career. We find that mothers tend to enter
on lower ranks than non-mothers. 37 percent of the gap can be explained by
rank fixed effects and human capital characteristics. A large part remains
unexplained. Graphical analyses show that part of the difference already
evolves during the early career. Part of this seems related to the
relatively low starting ranks.
Keywords: Promotion; women; family gap; human capital; organizational hierarchy; decomposition.; (follow links to similar papers)
JEL-Codes: J10; J60; M50; (follow links to similar papers)
33 pages, August 22, 2014
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