Scandinavian Working Papers in Economics

EIJS Working Paper Series,
Stockholm School of Economics, The European Institute of Japanese Studies

No 197: TO MERGE AND ACQUIRE WHEN THE TIMES ARE GOOD? THE INFLUENCE OF MACRO FACTORS ON THE JAPANESE M&A PATTERN

Richard Nakamura ()
Additional contact information
Richard Nakamura: European Institute of Japanese Studies, Postal: Stockholm School of Economics, P.O. Box 6501, S-113 83 Stockholm, Sweden

Abstract: After the burst of the "bubble" economy and the subsequent recession of the 1990's, a new era of M&A started in Japan. Following the deregulation in a number of non-tradable sectors, a relatively large number of foreign firms have entered the Japanese market, using M&As as a tool for market entry. In many sectors, the sudden exposure to international competition forced the Japanese firms in the formerly protected industries to restructure and streamline their operations in order to survive the new order. For the foreign firms, the opened-up economy has offered new business opportunities, and a chance to compete on more equal terms with the Japanese firms in their home market. Furthermore, foreign firms have now also discovered M&As as a cost-efficient tool to enter the Japanese market and achieve market-specific knowledge, instead of making expensive greenfield investments and joint ventures. For Japanese firms, international M&As have become a viable alternative to domestic ones due to market liberalization and the economic realities of the 1990s. Here, it is interesting to ask to what extent macro factors have influenced the pattern of M&As in Japan. Can macroeconomic variables explain the Japanese M&A activities, or do other factors explain them? What are the effects of institutional changes on the M&A pattern during the 1990's? In this paper, the short-run pattern of Japanese post-bubble inward (cross-border) and domestic M&As is analyzed econometrically, using Japanese macroeconomic and M&A data. The conclusions are that the post-reform pattern represents a significant shift from the previously low levels of M&As, and that domestic and inward M&As are influenced differently by macro factors, suggesting differing rationale for doing M&As. The estimation results also suggest some support for the "fire sale" argument as a driving force for Japanese M&As during the period of post-bubble recession.

Keywords: Mergers & Acquisitions; Institutional change; Japan

JEL-codes: D21; E32; F21; F23; G34; G38; L16

27 pages, September 23, 2004

Full text files

eijswp0197.pdf PDF-file Full text

Download statistics

Questions (including download problems) about the papers in this series should be directed to Nanhee Lee ()
Report other problems with accessing this service to Sune Karlsson ().

This page generated on 2018-01-23 23:31:49.