James J Heckman
and Jeffrey A. Smith
James J Heckman: University of Chicago, Postal: Department of Economics, 1126 E. 59th Street, Chicago, IL 60637 USA,
Jeffrey A. Smith: University of Maryland, Postal: Department of Economics, College Park, MD 20742-7211
Abstract: This paper decomposes the participation process of a prototypical program into eligibility, awareness, application, acceptance and enrollment. With this decomposition, we determine the sources of unequal participation for different groups, and demonstrate that variables often have very different effects at different stages in the participation process. Our analysis shows that personal choices substantially affect participation and that awareness of program eligibility is a major source of variation in participation.
76 pages, June 10, 2003
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