Scandinavian Working Papers in Economics

Working Paper Series,
Research Institute of Industrial Economics

No 733: Gazelles as Job Creators – A Survey and Interpretation of the Evidence

Magnus Henrekson () and Dan Johansson ()
Additional contact information
Magnus Henrekson: Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Postal: P.O. Box 55665, SE-102 15 Stockholm, Sweden
Dan Johansson: Ratio, Postal: P.O. Box 3203, SE-103 64 Stockholm, Sweden

Abstract: It is often claimed that small and young firms account for a disproportionately large share of net employment growth. We conduct a meta analysis of the empirical evidence regarding whether net employment growth rather is generated by a few rapidly growing firms – so-called Gazelles – that are not necessarily small and young. Gazelles are found to be outstanding job creators. They create all or a large share of new net jobs. On average, Gazelles are younger and smaller than other firms, but it is young age more than small size that is associated with rapid growth. Gazelles also seem to be overrepresented in services.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Firm Growth; Flyers; Gazelles; High-growth Firms; Job Creation; Rapidly Growing Firms

JEL-codes: D21; L25; M13; O10; O40

25 pages, February 8, 2008

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