() and Koen Frenken
Mila Davids: School of Innovation Sciences, Eindhoven University of Technology
Koen Frenken: Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University & CIRCLE, Lund University
Abstract: The proximity concept refers to types of inter-organizational relationships that are expected to facilitate interactive learning and collaborative innovation. Different forms of proximity include geographical, cognitive, social, institutional and organizational proximity. Following an extensive case study of a new diet margarine developed by Unilever, we extent the proximity framework by theorizing how the relative importance of each proximity dimension depends on the type of knowledge being produced, where we distinguish between analytical, synthetic and symbolic knowledge. We argue that our theoretical framework in principle applies to product innovations in all science-based industries.
36 pages, February 15, 2015
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